All horseback riders were stunt riders or experienced actors who were skilled at riding, mounting and dismounting. All running/galloping scenes were well choreographed, and actors used caution while on and near animals. The horse(s) rearing was a trained behavior. When teams of horses pulled wagons or carriages, the drivers were experienced and teams of horses were familiar with each other and accustomed to the pulling action. Whenever horses were seen tied to posts/fences, they were attached to lead ropes tied to posts.
Throughout the film, goats, chickens and geese were seen milling about. This mild action was achieved using one or more of the following methods: the animals were allowed to graze at liberty; they were attached to lead ropes (held by actors or tied to posts); and/or they had their legs hobbled with soft cotton rope. Costumed trainers were in the scene during filming and/or trainers stood just off camera.
When we see the horse drawn carriage riding through the country with Emma and her father as passengers, the horses were trained, quiet driving horses, experienced with working on busy film sets. The grooms stood by the horse’s heads whenever the cameras were not rolling. The horses wore steel shoes on all four feet. The horses were unhitched from the carriage to reset and the carriage was manually pushed back to its start position. On action, the horses were driven forward 200ft at a walk and along the driveway and into the courtyard.
In the scene when the two actresses walk down an empty road, and one of them stops to talk to a man on horseback, on action, the driver stood beside the cart on the far side and held the reins. As the actresses walked past, the driver came to the side of the horse nearest the camera (still holding the reins) and pretended to adjust the harness.